Destination America: 3 -- Made in Britain
- Publication date
- Danielle Marchese 132 West 31st Street, 17th Fl. New York NY 10001 USA (800)257-5126 http://ffh.films.com/
Describes how the British, highly skilled and seeking prosperity, were considered to be model immigrants. Uses interviews and hi./ia m pictures to portray what life in America was like for the English and Welsh who were able to reap the material rewards of America's expanding economy. Part of a nine-part series.
- 2015-07-10 01:11:18
- Grandfather's. One. Of six. And. I suppose you went to the states because there was no work to be found twelve. One just below the feeling of card justice is a feeling that there is an affiliation a strong tie back to the lab literally of our fathers we perpetuate it whether the all the traditions of the well. When when the mills were stock they sent to England for all the people to control the and that's why there were so many people here from Lancaster and cheese please. We're convinced it was now. Forced to really give us children three of those were two to do in this great fantastic United States she was told about which wasn't quite so for testing tribunals weekend. Thank. You. The engine houses of mine she muses Cornish landscape was silent now. In the eighteen hundreds the noise they made running across the top of the Atlantic to the English Channel. Only eight hundred score who could use two thirds of the world's. Much abuse to conditions on the ground were pulling down in the dust. Aged to the miners' bodies destroyed his home I don't think very many of them lived a long time. My father made sixty nine but I'm sure that my mother's two brothers one probably went to thirty five and the other just over four days it was quite common place to be at school with youngsters of his dad's has died at a very young age I recollect early one morning being with my fun and he was going to gain mushrooms he was unemployed and there was no unemployment benefit for him. And we happened to meet an old friend of his old left the mines a lot of his talking to my father you had a fit of coughing. And being only kid of about ten eleven I remember I was horrified to see pool of blood. That's that's exaggerating it but blood on the gun he's bet it up. It took in minutes before you recover to face and lay and then he drove off with his gun in trend line you another neighbor who was next door to me. He hadn't even shown that was a Cornish mine is life in the last century. By nine hundred media out of corn was placed them agreed yet only forty years and the other be nearly four hundred mine was working in corn. I think about eight hundred thirty The were about thirty thousand people employed in the minds of co-morbid either directly or indirectly in fact it was the lifeblood of the county in those days. Thank you. First of all you've got the recurring booms and slumps of trade generally a right from Victorian era which I would say I'm being more extreme than the you know our own lifetime the inevitable moons and some sweet defect in metal prices and then of course you must realize this that the mind unlike most of industry is well of mine is like a human being when it's blown it's going to die and every Monday is that. Wages tend to be very low and the industry with this continual series of booms and sumps and got down into a port economic position and couldn't afford very much in the way wages and the result was that even when we weren't in the middle of the Depression. Minor same level those big money to be made in Australia or in America or of any rate there are blowing stories coming home all the possibilities will have a go at it and so may never graduate. I know of a small country church which had about thirty members and I believe they last summer about eight or nine Main in that little community within twelve months I think it was about nineteen zero nine. Attracted by they then bring young prospects in the United States. So it only shows how it affected the county in every way. This they made money enough course there are a must in majority cases it was to come home and settle down. They didn't need a great pile of money like they do today is say because a man came home with two thousand pounds a new U.S. fixed. He was fixed for life at that time it. Was money was to have percent. And. Or you had was two thousand thirty Benjy you about last hour you would have if you were to make jack your work and his youthful wage per week. So there you get a parent or we come in for doing that said your settlement. The miners of Cornwall left the country in the thousands. Someone for a short season two American returned with enough money to buy a plot of land in the home country. Others settled in the new mining times of California Colorado Michigan and Wisconsin they were the best hard rock miners in the world. We call it minus the went down to size and of course of many sounds they will all know that's come that Americans told them that they like all England text Cousin Jack was always cause it was just another Cornishman who come to America whenever men were looking for on line when they went from mine and some of them in the office with staff at Sidon it right. Cousin Jack put up a hand and then received yes they stepped night aligned one side they were the first to go in and kept flying and I suppose it was accepted that they knew something about mining. The Cousin Jack network began in southern Wisconsin when the first coalition looking stream here in the eighteenth thirty's to work the lead mines. We're going into the carriage and Jack here in Linden Yes with the everybody in town with Cousin Jane that I think the majority of the people living here today are clearly his history. They were told that there were bitches here the carnage the one of course this goes back to the Cornish storytelling I think the ones who came first broke. Letters Home and told how well they were doing and how easy it was to make money they were told the bad may on the surface of the ground here which he did in some places and the idea that that or of which they were going to a deep to find in Cornwall was strewn over the ground was a book that the leading idea to the Cornish miner course looked like well really easy well and they came in anticipation of wealth and very few of them down but. The men came fast leaving their families in corner. One of the women left behind was really in Harry's grandmother. Her husband was in America he wasn't tending her any money she had three children and she went to Penn tents to work as a cook she came home once a week to see the children on the Sunday afternoon on have to be with her mother she would leave pains and at four o'clock in the afternoon on Rocco and be back again the ten o'clock in the evening she decided to go to America and I think her brother musta financed or he was already there and. She packed up and took three children with how my grandmother I did. Arrived in Denver she was met by her brother the she needed an ascent where it is will. Her brother said Oh you'll be all right met she said if you take you'll be all right men if you did. Parent they had been there the day before that mountain fever. Was she took a toll. Nevada Ville and the nine is there. Built her log cabin. She took in twenty four men and washed in the bank for them. I'm returning. To the country. She was going to fall. She got up at four o'clock in the morning and went to bed at night. In America. Methodist him sang out over Colorado and Wisconsin. And. The. Cornish could always me. Some of them of married into other immigrant groups but they still remember. Where we. Are related. Offense in our neighborhood. Because we still have a strong feeling. Ship among the Cornish in this area. My husband my first husband for thing one time about the neighborhood. Purely getting real work all these always good Cornish girls are marrying German that it was just ruining them over. To I don't think it's that serious the situation the Cornish. They could think was also a knowledge of know somebody pitched tuna made all thing and on the way home from the mine. There walked a course in those days and they do quite well slinging Mosul somewhat of a Methodist church and of course though I went to church a lot because or as dad says almost much else to go into full the always want church maybe about three times a day on Sunday. And the or was mostly taken to kill enough and they took up by oxen. They would bring back groceries for the local store and usually a barrel was key and he said for some reason or other that barrel whiskey got tapped on the way home they were related when they came there was intermarriage in Cornwall is we have checked the records and then when they got to this country they lived in a tight knit little group and very definitely into me there where I have found instances in the rule family of double first cousin Mary. So for there was a lot of interview. Well it's to the point now where this neighborhood is they say that here either rule or a Jew or your wife was very much. And it's this is literally true they were a bit rough I think most of them when I got home from the mine they always want to call the saloon in those days and they'd bring your dinner pail home a full there. It was a well you see in the buckets that they carried the mind him little place and talk for the past no place a bomb for the payoff in place and saw for the coffee but that was empty again they came home so that was full there. Done after supper. Usually they want backup home for a while. Well I think that we were always so very proud of our going to share a cage I remember when I went to school to we called Iron basketball teams the carnage nine years an arrow schooling your with the current each mine yours and then we had a little song we used to saying when we plan to cheer and boy we can I see it. Oh OK. Oh when you hear the roller lap them the end and drum then you don't know that part of the share count for the Cornish company is the Bascom funny he that ever come over from the oak I'm sory. And as. Soon. As. It's a little of the. Folding that patients should I knew. And I listened with joy I did when the boy to Sam and of the old village better. Church bell. That's a bit although I remember. That on but I've heard it sung many many times even by people Cornish people in California. Have had them just humming singing too. Many times. The. Other. I think that most children of carnage people look for name and Mary kept wondered to come back here to have this it seemed to be paid attraction come back to the old country and there's a. Nice. Choice or in nearly every year she likes it here by this it doesn't have a phone and she's an American go Susan Cornish. Oh. The men from the Welsh valleys like the Cornish and skills to offer America. After eight hundred fifty the rapid growth of the United States created to demand for minus column of iron and steel workers the Welsh with the men for these jobs. I'm an American first but I still. Deeply Rivero ties are the prints apology of whales and I want to keep my family on awareness of that which. While she gave us. Although none of us in my generation were born in Wales. Most Welsh went to Pennsylvania settled in the mining areas around Wilkes Barre but I was a boy to return for those services were conducted entirely in a well. As a result I had to learn that all the extras and the change. Came over and they brought with them their skill as Paul miners and naturally gravitated to the place where there was as reciter of hard call with which they've been used to dealing. As a result way most of the mine bosses and mine owners were Welsh because of terror acts jobs open and there were ten candidates who are Welsh and ten or Irish what I've read and learned of those days the Welsh received a preference. You know when. My grandfather came in the early eighty's sixty. K. would call minor later superintendent the call he had six children by boys and girls. Life I remember three boys he became district attorney of Luzerne County northeastern Pennsylvania and he when I look bench that he was a judge up there. Later president judge of that study for approximately twenty three years. My grandfather came here because the village in the area or T. lived apparently offered to sources of employment one was a coma the lead mine and the other is out of a shepherd lead mind. And as a result he was took face to the choice of being a shepherd pearly didn't run a baby. So we came to America. And some below said there were strikes in the past a car in the West in any work so nasty when there wasn't any work in this no money and my mother used to say her grandmother her grandmother used to say after feeding them cease to say thank God I fed them once again. My grandfather he certainly was working at the edge of trial according to the census returns of eight hundred sixty one where is recorded as being twelve years old and it's like car and he was already at that age. Working persona in the pen and current. The young man make a scout my grandfather's young man comes this county my mother talk with a young man coming to this country they came about. Between eight hundred fifty eight hundred sixty five and was when they came. Oh Happy people don't migrate they didn't leave their homes. Skill Protestant British Welsh pretty easily into American society. They did well and then you lie. There has been rather gap for a change I suppose and social mobility and three generations in America of a tween my grandfather who came over as a slave. Corey men and then my father who did work his way through college and got a professional degree was a civil engineer actually worked as a land surveyor and achieve what would be called middle class status in a suburb of New York City and then I was the next generation and I only went to college but was able to go on to graduate school and get a Ph D. in ended up in university teaching. That my father told me that his he had a brief a somewhat the experience in the slick quick and slick coring that as a boy he did go to work in a slight Corey I suppose one summer and the next thing he knew he found himself somehow on a crane which had swung out over the open Korea rather terrifying experience and everybody was on the edge of the quarry was yelling to him Hold on Dick. Hold on my father told me it had never occurred to him to do anything else and that what he did make up his mind right then and there that if he ever got back safely he would never work in a slate quarry again another day of his life and he did not the Germans were in the Slate inflating confection they were farmers and if they saw this late they didn't know what to do with it that wasn't until the last minute came that the quarries where work. And coming from the slate sections the whales right knew all of that plate. Most people would never think of the pieces but it would mean a thing to them from the point of my dates let's put it that way. Well this may have very much arouse certain of Welsh Patriots for the seem to me that the Welsh as a group were very quickly assimilated into the dominant want to say was asking at the Anglo-Saxon community and the contributions they made were because of their individual ability and not because they are of any particular Welsh background is such. A broad with them their music and Welsh music a loaf you near Yellin tone is a beauty for years it. Also brought a sense of humor also brought a group who too often rush into things. Not even on a calculated risk and some of them were very successful in doing it they also brought with a sense of discipline. Developed in the Welsh households in the Prince of polity of Wales which has helped their children and grandchildren and so forth and by example other. House so. This is a typical American There is no. You haven't you have an ethnic background and some Sorry the only real Americans and the Indians. American in all the horror when the poor. Poor the. Our work. Week when you come. On one. When. Her where her. For the British. This club is the last meeting place in Lawrence Massachusetts. We are trying to. Write a list of large brief oblongs Massachusetts most of our members here come from Britain a racially problem the prepress years ago of textile mills. They all gathered here my father worked in the sense of time he came over he worked on the old Washington and one X. Lozano later on he went to the window. Well I feel if I go up in Canada which I don't quite often and I go to these different clubs and they play the national anthem and I am like God Save the King or I'm right dead eleven friends called Give us your me I don't know what Dahlia column but that's what I say. These empty mules and are part of American and British history once they were the magnet The drew thousands of textile workers from Britain to America. We're. In the mines and. Tonight we have no time to primp for take. Dress up today. Children grow up fun Larry. No time to go to school. Almost before I have landed wrong they are Larry. Do spin. The boss man jerk them around and around and we're very. Tell you why the factory kid. And he treated me. The folks seem to be dressed so fine and then money free. Well hardly a lot to the factory. Through director like us. Bradford Keithley Huddersfield and Manchester these with the tongues which train the English immigrants. They went to the mill towns of Massachusetts for River New Bedford and the one they call the Bradford of America loves. The town of Lawrence was purpose built for industry in eight hundred forty seven dam was constructed especially to power just. Log on the speaking the immigrant city that house people from fifty one countries its skilled immigrants with textile workers from Britain because they were skilled they got the best jobs in the middle times of the week. At first like the other immigrants they lived in the cheap wouldn't tell him and so for river. Lawrence on New Bedford. Between eight hundred seventy and one hundred twenty two million English came to America one of these was Laura drums who came in one thousand eleven as a mill go from Manchester. Opening them leave our constitutional showdown over your head own trunks and traitor clatter Elie in the morning I just go to the renter fool come street from St Matthew I do not mean that strain that I remember I took my daughter back and I'm not to the door and asked the lady could be coming to show my daughter where I stood there in. The excitement and the deal I have going on a big hit from where and going to America at the time was very exciting as much as you felt sad for you know at seventeen years old the time in his life I'm sure my mother and father thought. Badly and my boyfriend tried to make another hole in the leather strap that was holding my my luggage and cutting them any sound was bleeding and I left and I felt terrible. Heartaches you know excitement in and very very sad to me and I cried Father. Well cried as we did. As the train pulled up. However when he got here you know money to go back again you see. The loneliness was well when you feel it. Seventeen years old you could walk the ocean if there was any way of getting back no matter what you are leaving here. It didn't matter you want to get back say that me and with the heart think it taught your heart out for the longest time after the glamour all the excitement of the newness passed away. It wasn't anything you wanted so as I say we had had enough money I think we would all of gone back to Langley told the DOT little apartment and there's a house and no heat in the rest of it but we have done very well in this country it was worth all the sadness. Although my mother always said Well I don't care we would have done just as well in England if we stayed there and worked as hard as we have done here we didn't get anything given to us we work for everything that was mother's opinion but he never did have a chance to go back again. James Piper left went to St Liverpool at the age of forty nine hundred two and went back here ten years ago. And I went to my favorite place. In the very first sight a liberal. I identified and located forty three Yeah I know are coming that there are right. Now respond. Poverty drove James Carville it's family to America. His father sold all the furniture to buy tickets and the troubled steerage on the steamship either knew. One of the daughters was crippled by the teen when we landed here my sister. To be detained on account of her accident and they were some question about deporting us because apparently from never been so we were going to become a public catch and for some reason or other I think my father was able to convince them that he would be able to care for himself when he got here due to the fact that we were sort of sponsored by my mother's cousin so really got to show us right after that we met and Mrs Merrett No it was the cousin and she gave us money enough to come to know Chester they apparently didn't have room for us. And. They improvised bed for us in a hay law they put high spike it's down and I can remember it very very well because we couldn't sleep directly I would prefer me here and for the hospice and and we put up with that my mother cooked just the open forged where they used to. Heat the harsh use lead to shoot all hostages and we managed to live that way until my father could get a job. James Kuyper it's Father possible to America to build up a decorating business which he ran with his son the family now owns this would undo state near Lawrence. All I've got on my memories of to flee I can remember growing up think going to school going through the PA I can remember playing with the children now the and I remember going to kick it. I'll tell you one awful Polish trick I did. We used to save our money and school will I don't know if they do that now or not but my mother used to give me money every week to take to school and they put it in the same in the count and one we were already come to America I drew the money out and coming home through the pack I noted on the stump a tree stump and got home without the money and they had to go back here in the neighbors and look all over the pack till I found that money because we needed it to Governor Doyle America. My father came over the four years before I did I came in one thousand nine hundred eleven and he came over he thought to better himself or to of course I guess he did but the expression over there was you can walk around America aren't picking goals of Bach the streets and he was fought connect a gala position in the ward mill and he did just gradually go high every higher and then he sent for my mother and me and then a year later my baby brother came over. Here's a cabinet maker he had landed strays we just didn't like it way things will go on at that time and course again told how wonderful money they were making in this country for that kind of were. My father came when I was two years old and left my mother and I they are and we came here in November and I was three the problem in March. He had never gone back because that would have been a sadder one desire to get a son back home again but my father would never go there that he went to he went many many years when that you know a lot of unemployment. Capitals never day should come out of work when the snow came and you don't go back to old spring Plus no had gone. And there was no welfare and then days later and the you just said I have a good grocer man that would carry your lying and paid up when he's that organ. Well I know what the boat arrived in Boston and I can remember my father and my grandmother coming down to meet us and I can remember my grandmother going in and buy and peaches and given me one because I had never seen peaches before in my life. And I can remember eating that peach on the streets of often at the and then we got the bus to come home to what Lawrence and then I also remember I had high shoes on and they didn't wear high heels and America and the first thing one of my ass did was take those high heels up. And take me down city and buy me a care issues like they will here in America and my mother was a gun back any day and suppression Pakistan case and got some day when he got away. She wanted to go back but he didn't and they stick it out and the Lady years I think she was glad she didn't. Know when you go to work while you work like the devil at the end of the week. They're not on the level. Payday comes up any because when you pay your bills you got so many I'm gonna starve and everybody will cause you can make a living in a cotton mill. Aside is that it's six o'clock and I'm on your work so six o'clock at night. One of those little bells will ring they rang as occur through the ring in the morning when your money and then ring when you came out when you buy clothes on easy term elected treats you like a measly worm one dollar down and then Lord knows if you can't make a payment they take to close on the starve and everybody will but you can't make a living in a cotton mill long on top of six in the morning and speed stops at eight o'clock and then they come around at all time you make your own T.N. heavy a breakfast and then talking in a date and goes on until twelve and then you start again on some long time ago you know can't make a living then the cop no. Forty four hours a week you are to some privacy as he wanted to turn it into a load of Clark and standing room. Ashes to ashes and the dust to dust lets the rich man living room before man but you'll never make it never will long agree working are rounding marrow. Bones movement because. When I saw a teen I was fourteen. And so I do know when it into the minimum Monday morning and. I came from a one night brought their skills from my lunch they know how to run them else I had to bring him all the here anyway once the mills was set up they had to have some they don't know how to operate them and I am can taught the opposite as fires the blast was can stand he was actually thinking a decade at home as to where and how didn't work and you know she laid a member of us on family left the fast one on the payroll he had hundreds and hundreds of jobs to give out that Bob Diamond of bands tonight kept they have to they did everything under the sun farm and some instances I know that they want of and took care of his land that they bowed down lines tended the guiding and self-taught of course the nothing and for the job and that's the way it was in the mills there we didn't have drinking water the less we paid for spring what does they use the water of the canal coming from our a micro is not fit to drink. So if we didn't pay so much each week for the spring water to be brought into was the the drink canal water go without. We try to improve the conditions are using the toilets in the sink them and places like that that way in those days I was no such thing as a coffee break. If you wait you wait right standing right alongside the machine if you have to go to the bathroom and I brought effects of wrap their section hand come up and he stood alongside of you know why you went down to the toilet when you come back you know took over there was an outside source. Saying And those days as a cough in fact. The British textile worker might be earning better wages in America but he was having to work much harder under the pasta face. The first day I went and I was ready to come out when you have to highlight of media the fountain to you that I didn't make it sound like you need to pay over and must just be showered and when I got home from the that have to calm me down. And I'm nice was so great that the Straits Times but one side and going out the other place the last thing that just about status I guess they actually sounded as they were on ramp a tie us you want to leave it but everything seemed to be self quiet and pace felt you couldn't hear a thing because you're accustomed to the nice and as I understand it the waiver on some of those other places where even worse I can't imagine I think sometimes I'm hard of hearing to this day they cut so I think that they was geared up from the from the upper offer so that they would push that help to release from any of the human being could stand long always a Ida disregards we had no workman's compensation. Accidents while you you're on your own no one and. Loyal member of that particular time. Just work and get paid and paid very well meal ways I can remember we were in here too long when they had a big strike human longer time remember them very well and the trolley cast someone stole the trolley Thomas is in the people and and you know find coming out of the mills and strengthen. The nineteen twelve Lawrence strike was a turning point in the influence of British immigrants only American textile industry. In the nineteenth century they had helped to build a trade union movement. On the other large moron district pocketing with employers on violent strikes in this strike the British were mainly unwilling participants it was a bit a struggle. Troops were called in the well confrontations with the strikers. Their leaders this time with a new immigrants the polls and if you any of this the Italians they banned the people to come on this side of the bridge and the pad all of soldiers the enemy bad and. Did you. Try to say the sun is up when all the strike. And. The Sea Folk they want to roll their ass American flag around themselves. And then the soldiers know that's our They got on this. People. Even on the side to people stop to talk. This. Strike without the. People there was no. They've gone back. Couldn't get back. In full river the Mills died during the one nine hundred thirty. The owners attracted by cheap non-union labor moved. The wake for the mill towns begat. Lawrence New Bedford full river. Their heyday was. The day the British helped to make. Only the mills were left to remind people of the past. Some of the British should return to their home country. Most stayed in the. House of their own lot of law but a chance for the children. That dream is now of the old country of the mill towns with they all documents. Well I can only think of Keith way as it was when I was a child. He's no a nonsensical of letter comes into my mind you know it's nothing but a grown up with power you think I've shouldn't to God but I do I just want to go back and see if the really exists there are just to find a certain you know think and I think why I wanted the things that I have in my mind so you know if there is such a thing as a small stone wall and I used to walk around actors and if there was you know back up truck to find my way down to the pack which I used to go every Sunday when my grandfather guest or band contest or something. And I just like to go and see one small maybe I would like to go back and see the little covered sad that my grandmother used to hide the Can the end I think I could go back to the park sick Taria pack that's why I'm gonna go with it is just see if I could find the things that are you know are in my mind. Go down the pack again. Chary of fact walk around that last storm our Some build enough and the top of the town I think about a lost I'm not allowed to go back and just see if it's the way dips in my mind. Oh yes I think of key for us home I think wherever your ball on a new big you and go back and see author knew. Thank you for this home. Mrs most English caution Charlie come to Mr living peacefully but it. Was she does go. On to do so all of them so they all are swish the gun regards to the time they weren't so terrible slump. Well I will prosper in the world on well in Russia. Well you know all about standard of living. Whether it died in Florida. From the north what Mildred. Now out of all nicely when the last oh cows up front cabin close it back on that are now in. But of that they're doing. No no I like this way of life. I've been back and you know and I stayed with my cousins and they live rather well they all have their own homes and lives very nicely that limited content to american me there is no limit and you go in that home and they had everything circled latest refrigerator or vacuum cleaners. Televisions this water is not mean to write one hundred. X.. Wants at the slogan of the friendliest city in the United States. It was but his chains you want to Lawrence said a little better to the one you don't know your love we have a population now we're close to fifteen or sixteen thousand a Puerto Ricans Ecuadorians and from South America and everything else they're being exploited the day for cheap labor. And the person was born here. You can't get a job but we can beat that I go to the simple reason of Puerto Rico is the possession of the United States here's what's right with what we. Know. Today the know about grants that faced not only with the language barrier but a dirty I'm sure I missed that they cannot get by with their skill. Most of them come from families are from. Farming communities as they come employing a study that as completely mechanized most of the jobs on as very very few jobs except up on the modern elves and some of these other places where they can go on labouring lift up your hearts. Oh Lord open the lip. Pray the lord. With prayer. The the. All. Already. Hold. People used to be most friendly. Today I don't see it has no strangers that friendly anymore. You really have to know people. It's I enjoyed my work. Never ever lists are easy to see that your spirits of the ever worked as a building on issues of race and the like to. See. He seems like an entirely different lifetime this is a I never was was that I was and I'm quite an English person perceives say that was a long haul for. To. God. What this. Earth but they.
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